Toyota
Dodge Durango
 Service Manual
Transmission and Transfer Case » Description and operation
Valve body

DESCRIPTION

The valve body consists of a cast aluminum valve body, a separator plate, and transfer plate. The valve body contains valves and check balls that control fluid delivery to the torque converter clutch, bands, and frictional clutches. The valve body contains the following components (Fig. 18), (Fig. 19), (Fig. 20), and (Fig. 21):

  • Regulator valve
  • Regulator valve throttle pressure plug
  • Line pressure plug and sleeve
  • Kickdown valve
  • Kickdown limit valve
  • 1-2 shift valve
  • 1-2 control valve
  • 2-3 shift valve
  • 2-3 governor plug
  • 3-4 shift valve
  • 3-4 timing valve
  • 3-4 quick fill valve
  • 3-4 accumulator
  • Throttle valve
  • Throttle pressure plug
  • Switch valve
  • Manual valve
  • Converter clutch lock-up valve
  • Converter clutch lock-up timing Valve
  • Shuttle valve
  • Shuttle valve throttle plug
  • Boost Valve
  • 10 check balls

By adjusting the spring pressure acting on the regulator valve, transmission line pressure can be adjusted.

Fig. 18 Upper Housing Control Valve Locations Fig. 18 Upper Housing Control Valve Locations

1 - UPPER HOUSING

2 - REGULATOR VALVE

3 - SWITCH VALVE

4 - REGULATOR VALVE SPRING

5 - KICKDOWN VALVE

6 - KICKDOWN DETENT

7 - THROTTLE VALVE AND SPRING

8 - MANUAL VALVE

9 - 1-2 GOVERNOR PLUG

10 - GOVERNOR PLUG COVER

11 - THROTTLE PLUG

12 - 2-3 GOVERNOR PLUG

13 - SHUTTLE VALVE PRIMARY SPRING

Fig. 19 Shuttle and Boost Valve Locations Fig. 19 Shuttle and Boost Valve Locations

1 - SPRING

2 - RETAINER

3 - BOOST VALVE

4 - BOOST VALVE PLUG

5 - SPRING GUIDES

6 - E-CLIP

7 - SHUTTLE VALVE SECONDARY SPRING

8 - SHUTTLE VALVE COVER

9 - SHUTTLE VALVE

10 - SHUTTLE VALVE PRIMARY SPRING

11 - GOVERNOR PLUG COVER

12 - THROTTLE PLUG

13 - UPPER HOUSING

14 - BOOST VALVE COVER

Fig. 20 Upper Housing Shift Valve and Pressure Plug Locations Fig. 20 Upper Housing Shift Valve and Pressure Plug Locations

1 - UPPER HOUSING

2 - 1-2 SHIFT VALVE AND SPRING

3 - 2-3 SHIFT VALVE AND SPRING

4 - 2-3 THROTTLE PLUG

5 - LIMIT VALVE HOUSING

6 - LIMIT VALVE COVER

7 - LIMIT VALVE AND SPRING

8 - RETAINER

9 - 1-2 SHIFT CONTROL VALVE AND SPRING

10 - PRESSURE PLUG COVER

11 - LINE PRESSURE PLUG

12 - PLUG SLEEVE

13 - THROTTLE PRESSURE SPRING AND PLUG

Fig. 21 Lower Housing Shift Valves and Springs Fig. 21 Lower Housing Shift Valves and Springs

1 - 3-4 ACCUMULATOR HOUSING

2 - 3-4 SHIFT VALVE AND SPRING

3 - PLUG

4 - SPRING RETAINER

5 - CONVERTER CLUTCH VALVE AND SPRING

6 - CONVERTER CLUTCH TIMING VALVE AND SPRING

7 - OVERDRIVE SEPARATOR PLATE

8 - CASE CONNECTOR

9 - CONVERTER CLUTCH SOLENOID

10 - OVERDRIVE SOLENOID

11 - TIMING VALVE COVER

12 - PLUG

13 - 3-4 TIMING VALVE AND SPRING

14 - LOWER HOUSING

15 - ACCUMULATOR END PLATE

16 - 3-4 ACCUMULATOR PISTON AND SPRING

17 - E-CLIP

18 - 3-4 QUICK FILL SPRING AND VALVE

19 - SOLENOID GASKET

20 - HARNESS

OPERATION

NOTE: Refer to the Hydraulic Schematics for a visual aid in determining valve location, operation and design.

REGULATOR VALVE

The pressure regulator valve is needed to control the hydraulic pressure within the system and reduce the amount of heat produced in the fluid. The pressure regulator valve is located in the valve body near the manual valve. The pressure regulator valve train controls the maximum pressure in the lines by metering the dumping of fluid back into the sump.

Regulated pressure is referred to as "line pressure." The regulator valve (Fig. 22) has a spring on one end that pushes the valve to the left. This closes a dump (vent) that is used to lower pressure. The closing of the dump will cause the oil pressure to increase. Oil pressure on the opposite end of the valve pushes the valve to the right, opening the dump and lowering oil pressure. The result is spring pressure working against oil pressure to maintain the oil at specific pressures. With the engine running, fluid flows from the pump to the pressure regulator valve, manual valve, and the interconnected circuits. As fluid is sent through passages to the regulator valve, the pressure pushes the valve to the right against the large spring. It is also sent to the reaction areas on the left side of the throttle pressure plug and the line pressure plug. With the gear selector in the park position, fluid recirculates through the regulator and manual valves back to the sump.

Meanwhile, the torque converter is filled slowly. In all other gear positions (Fig. 23), fluid flows between two right side lands to the switch valve and torque converter. At low pump speeds, the flow is controlled by the pressure valve groove to reduce pressure to the torque converter. After the torque converter and switch valve fill with fluid, the switch valve becomes the controlling metering device for torque converter pressure. The regulator valve then begins to control the line pressure for the other transmission circuits.

The balance of the fluid pressure pushing the valve to the right and the spring pressure pushing to the left determines the size of the metering passage at land #2 (land #1 being at the far right of the valve in the diagram). As fluid leaks past the land, it moves into a groove connected to the filter or sump. As the land meters the fluid to the sump, it causes the pressure to reduce and the spring decreases the size of the metering passage. When the size of the metering passage is reduced, the pressure rises again and the  size of the land is increased again. Pressure is regulated by this constant balance of hydraulic and spring pressure.

Fig. 22 Regulator Valve in Park Position Fig. 22 Regulator Valve in Park Position

The metering at land #2 establishes the line pressure throughout the transmission. It is varied according to changes in throttle position, engine speed, and transmission condition within a range of 57-94 psi (except in reverse) (Fig. 24). The regulated line pressure in reverse (Fig. 25) is held at much higher pressures than in the other gear positions: 145-280 psi.

The higher pressure for reverse is achieved by the manual valve blocking the supply of line pressure to the reaction area left of land #4. With this pressure blocked, there is less area for pressure to act on to balance the force of the spring on the right. This allows line pressure to push the valve train to the right, reducing the amount of fluid returned to the pump's inlet, increasing line pressure.

Fig. 23 Regulator Valve in Neutral Position Fig. 23 Regulator Valve in Neutral Position

Fig. 24 Regulator Valve in Drive Position Fig. 24 Regulator Valve in Drive Position

Fig. 25 Regulator Valve in Reverse Position Fig. 25 Regulator Valve in Reverse Position

KICKDOWN VALVE

When the throttle valve is as far over to the left as it can go, the maximum line pressure possible will enter the throttle pressure circuit. In this case, throttle pressure will equal line pressure. With the kickdown valve (Fig. 26) pushed into the bore as far as it will go, fluid initially flows through the annular groove of the 2-3 shift valve (which will be in the direct drive position to the right).

After passing the annular groove, the fluid is routed to the spring end of the 2-3 shift valve. Fluid pressure reacting on the area of land #1 overcomes governor pressure, downshifting the 2-3 shift valve into the kickdown, or second gear stage of operation.

The valve is held in the kickdown position by throttle pressure routed from a seated check ball (#2). Again, if vehicle speed is low enough, throttle pressure will also push the 1-2 shift valve left to seat its governor plug, and downshift to drive breakaway.

KICKDOWN LIMIT VALVE

The purpose of the limit valve is to prevent a 3-2 downshift at higher speeds when a part-throttle downshift is not desirable. At these higher speeds only a full throttle 3-2 downshift will occur. At low road speeds (Fig. 27) the limit valve does not come into play and does not affect the downshifts. As the vehicle's speed increases (Fig. 28), the governor pressure also increases. The increased governor pressure acts on the reaction area of the bottom land of the limit valve overcoming the spring force trying to push the valve toward the bottom of its bore. This pushes the valve upward against the spring and bottoms the valve against the top of the housing. With the valve bottomed against the housing, the throttle pressure supplied to the valve will be closed off by the bottom land of the limit valve. When the supply of throttle pressure has been shut off, the 3-2 part throttle downshift plug becomes inoperative, because no pressure is acting on its reaction area.

1-2 SHIFT VALVE

The 1-2 shift valve assembly (Fig. 29), or mechanism, consists of: the 1-2 shift valve, governor plug, and a spring on the end of the valve. After the manual valve has been placed into a forward gear range, line pressure is directed to the 1-2 shift valve. As the throttle is depressed, throttle pressure is applied to the right side of the 1-2 shift valve assembly. With throttle pressure applied to the right side of the valve, there is now both spring pressure and throttle pressure acting on the valve, holding it against the governor plug. As the vehicle begins to move and build speed, governor pressure is created and is applied to the left of the valve at the governor plug.

Fig. 26 Kickdown Valve-Wide Open Throttle Fig. 26 Kickdown Valve-Wide Open Throttle

Fig. 27 Kickdown Limit Valve-Low Speeds Fig. 27 Kickdown Limit Valve-Low Speeds

Fig. 28 Kickdown Limit Valve-High Speeds Fig. 28 Kickdown Limit Valve-High Speeds

Fig. 29 1-2 Shift Valve-Before Shift Fig. 29 1-2 Shift Valve-Before Shift

When governor pressure builds to a point where it can overcome the combined force of the spring and throttle pressure on the other side of the valve, the valve will begin to move over to the right. As the valve moves to the right, the middle land of the valve will close off the circuit supplying the throttle pres- sure to the right side of the valve. When the throttle pressure is closed off, the valve will move even farther to the right, allowing line pressure to enter another circuit and energize the front servo, applying the front band (Fig. 30).

The governor plug serves a dual purpose:

  • It allows the shift valves to move either left or right, allowing both upshifts and downshifts.
  • When in a manual selection position, it will be hydraulically "blocked" into position so no upshift can occur.

The physical blocking of the upshift while in the manual "1" position is accomplished by the directing of line pressure between both lands of the governor plug. The line pressure reacts against the larger land of the plug, pushing the plug back against the end plate overcoming governor pressure. With the combination of the line pressure and spring pressure, the valve cannot move, preventing any upshift.

1-2 SHIFT CONTROL VALVE

It contains a valve with four lands and a spring. It is used as both a "relay" and "balanced" valve.

The valve has two specific operations (Fig. 31):

  • Aid in quality of the 1-2 upshift.
  • Aid in the quality and timing of the 3-2 kickdown ranges.

When the manual valve is set to the Drive position and the transmission is in the first or second gear range, 1-2 shift control or "modulated throttle pressure" is supplied to the middle of the accumulator piston by the 1-2 shift control valve. During the 1-2 upshift, this pressure is used to control the kickdown servo apply pressure that is needed to apply the kickdown and accumulator pistons. Thus, the 1-2 shift point is "cushioned" and the quality is improved. During a WOT kickdown, kickdown pressure is applied between the kickdown valve and the 1-2 shift control valve. This additional pressure is directed to the 1-2 shift control's spring cavity, adding to the spring load on the valve. The result of this increased "modulated" throttle pressure is a firmer WOT upshift.

2-3 SHIFT VALVE

The 2-3 shift valve mechanism (Fig. 32) consists of the 2-3 shift valve, governor plug and spring, and a throttle plug. After the 1-2 shift valve has completed its operation and applied the front band, line pressure is directed to the 2-3 shift valve through the connecting passages from the 1-2 shift valve. The line pressure will then dead-end at land #2 until the 2-3 valve is ready to make its shift. Now that the vehicle is in motion and under acceleration, there is throttle pressure being applied to the spring side of the valve and between lands #3 and #4.

As vehicle speed increases, governor pressure increases proportionately, until it becomes great enough to overcome the combined throttle and spring pressure on the right side of the valve. When this happens, the governor plug is forced against the shift valve moving it to the right. The shift valve causes land #4 to close the passage supplying throttle pressure to the 2-3 shift valve. Without throttle pressure present in the circuit now, the governor plug will push the valve over far enough to bottom the valve in its bore. This allows land #2 to direct line pressure to the front clutch.

After the shift (Fig. 33), line pressure is directed to the land between the shift valve and the governor plug, and to the release side of the kickdown servo.

This releases the front band and applies the front clutch, shifting into third gear or direct drive. The rear clutch remains applied, as it has been in the other gears. During a manual "1" or manual "2" gear selection, line pressure is sent between the two lands of the 2-3 governor plug. This line pressure at the governor plug locks the shift valve into the second gear position, preventing an upshift into direct drive.

The theory for the blocking of the valve is the same as that of the 1-2 shift valve.

Fig. 30 1-2 Shift Valve-After Shift Fig. 30 1-2 Shift Valve-After Shift

Fig. 31 1-2 Shift Control Valve Fig. 31 1-2 Shift Control Valve

Fig. 32 2-3 Shift Valve-Before Shift Fig. 32 2-3 Shift Valve-Before Shift

3-4 SHIFT VALVE

The PCM energizes the overdrive solenoid during the 3-4 upshift (Fig. 34). This causes the solenoid check ball to close the vent port allowing line pressure from the 2-3 shift valve to act directly on the 3-4 upshift valve.

Line pressure on the 3-4 shift valve overcomes valve spring pressure moving the valve to the upshift position (Fig. 35). This action exposes the feed passages to the 3-4 timing valve, 3-4 quick fill valve, 3-4 accumulator, and ultimately to the overdrive piston.

Fig. 33 2-3 Shift Valve-After Shift Fig. 33 2-3 Shift Valve-After Shift

Fig. 34 3-4 Shift Valve Before Shift Fig. 34 3-4 Shift Valve Before Shift

Fig. 35 3-4 Shift Valve After Shift Fig. 35 3-4 Shift Valve After Shift

3-4 TIMING VALVE

The 3-4 timing valve is moved by line pressure coming through the 3-4 shift valve (Fig. 36). The timing valve holds the 2-3 shift valve in an upshift position.

The purpose is to prevent the 2-3 valve from up or downshifting before the 3-4 valve (Fig. 37).

Fig. 36 3-4 Timing Valve Allowing 4-3 Shift Fig. 36 3-4 Timing Valve Allowing 4-3 Shift

3-4 QUICK FILL VALVE

The 3-4 quick fill valve provides faster engagement of the overdrive clutch during 3-4 upshifts. The valve temporarily bypasses the clutch piston feed orifice at the start of a 3-4 upshift (Fig. 39). This exposes a larger passage into the piston retainer resulting in a much faster clutch fill and apply sequence. The quick fill valve does not bypass the regular clutch feed orifice throughout the 3-4 upshift. Instead, once a predetermined pressure develops within the clutch, the valve closes the bypass. Clutch fill is then completed through the regular feed orifice.

THROTTLE VALVE

THROTTLE VALVE In all gear positions the throttle valve (Fig. 40) is being supplied with line pressure. The throttle valve meters and reduces the line pressure that now becomes throttle pressure. The throttle valve is moved by a spring and the kickdown valve, which is mechanically connected to the throttle. The larger the throttle opening, the higher the throttle pressure (to a maximum of line pressure). The smaller the throttle opening, the lower the throttle pressure (to a minimum of zero at idle). As engine speed increases, the increase in pump speed increases pump output. The increase in pressure and volume must be regulated to maintain the balance within the transmission. To do this, throttle pressure is routed to the reaction area on the right side of the throttle pressure plug (in the regulator valve).

The higher engine speed and line pressure would open the vent too far and reduce line pressure too much. Throttle pressure, which increases with engine speed (throttle opening), is used to oppose the movement of the pressure valve to help control the metering passage at the vent. The throttle pressure is combined with spring pressure to reduce the force of the throttle pressure plug on the pressure valve. The larger spring at the right closes the regulator valve passage and maintains or increases line pressure.

The increased line pressure works against the reaction area of the line pressure plug and the reaction area left of land #3 simultaneously moves the regulator valve train to the right and controls the metering passage.

The kickdown valve, along with the throttle valve, serve to delay upshifts until the correct vehicle and engine speed have been reached. It also controls downshifts upon driver demand, or increased engine load. If these valves were not in place, the shift  points would be at the same speed for all throttle positions.

Fig. 37 3-4 Timing Valve Allowing 3-2 Shift Fig. 37 3-4 Timing Valve Allowing 3-2 Shift

Fig. 38 3-4 Quick Fill Valve Before Shift Fig. 38 3-4 Quick Fill Valve Before Shift

Fig. 39 3-4 Quick Fill Valve After Shift Fig. 39 3-4 Quick Fill Valve After Shift

Fig. 40 Throttle Valve Fig. 40 Throttle Valve

The kickdown valve is actuated by a cam connected to the throttle. This is accomplished through either a linkage or a cable. The cam forces the kickdown valve toward the throttle valve compressing the spring between them and moving the throttle valve. As the throttle valve land starts to uncover its port, line pressure is "metered" out into the circuits and viewed as throttle pressure. This increased throttle pressure is metered out into the circuits it is applied to: the 1-2 and 2-3 shift valves.

When the throttle pressure is high enough, a 3-2 downshift will occur. If the vehicle speed is low enough, a 2-1 downshift will occur.

SWITCH VALVE

When the transmission is in Drive Second just before the TCC application occurs (Fig. 41), the pressure regulator valve is supplying torque converter pressure to the switch valve. The switch valve directs this pressure through the transmission input shaft, into the converter, through the converter, back out between the input shaft and the reaction shaft, and back up to the switch valve. From the switch valve, the fluid pressure is directed to the transmission cooler, and lubrication pressure returns from the cooler to lubricate different portions of the transmission.

Once the TCC control valve has moved to the left (Fig. 42), line pressure is directed to the tip of the switch valve, forcing the valve to the right. The switch valve now vents oil from the front of the piston in the torque converter, and supplies line pressure to the (rear) apply side of the torque converter piston. This pressure differential causes the piston to apply against the friction material, cutting off any further flow of line pressure oil. After the switch valve is shuttled right allowing line pressure to engage the TCC, torque converter pressure is directed past the switch valve into the transmission cooler and lubrication circuits.

Fig. 41 Switch Valve-Torque Converter Unlocked Fig. 41 Switch Valve-Torque Converter Unlocked

MANUAL VALVE

The manual valve (Fig. 43) is a relay valve. The purpose of the manual valve is to direct fluid to the correct circuit needed for a specific gear or driving range. The manual valve, as the name implies, is manually operated by the driver with a lever located on the side of the valve body. The valve is connected mechanically by either a cable or linkage to the gearshift mechanism. The valve is held in each of its positions by a spring-loaded roller or ball that engages the "roostercomb" of the manual valve.

Fig. 42 Switch Valve-Torque Converter Locked Fig. 42 Switch Valve-Torque Converter Locked

Fig. 43 Manual Valve Fig. 43 Manual Valve

CONVERTER CLUTCH LOCK-UP VALVE

The torque converter clutch (TCC) lock-up valve controls the back (ON) side of the torque converter clutch. When the PCM energizes the TCC solenoid to engage the converter clutch piston, pressure is applied to the TCC lock-up valve which moves to the right and applies pressure to the torque converter clutch.

CONVERTER CLUTCH LOCK-UP TIMING VALVE

The torque converter clutch (TCC) lock-up timing valve is there to block any 4-3 downshift until the TCC is completely unlocked and the clutch is disengaged.

SHUTTLE VALVE

The assembly is contained in a bore in the valve body above the shift valves. When the manual valve is positioned in the Drive range, throttle pressure acts on the throttle plug of the shuttle valve (Fig. 31) to move it against a spring, increasing the spring force on the shuttle valve. During a part or full throttle 1-2 upshift, the throttle plug is bottomed by throttle pressure, holding the shuttle valve to the right against governor pressure, and opening a by-pass circuit. The shuttle valve controls the quality of the kickdown shift by restricting the rate of fluid discharge from the front clutch and servo release circuits.

During a 3-2 kickdown, fluid discharges through the shuttle by-pass circuit. When the shuttle valve closes the by-pass circuit, fluid discharge is restricted and controlled for the application of the front band. During a 2-3 "lift foot" upshift, the shuttle valve by-passes the restriction to allow full fluid flow through the by-pass groove for a faster release of the band.

BOOST VALVE

The boost valve (Fig. 44) provides increased fluid apply pressure to the overdrive clutch during 3-4 upshifts (Fig. 45), and when accelerating in fourth gear.

    More about «Description and operation»:

    42/44 Re transmission

    Fluid

    Torque converter

    Oil pump

    Valve body

    Accumulator

    Pistons

    Front clutch

    Rear clutch

    Overdrive clutch

    Overrunning clutch

    Planetary gearset

    Bands

    Servos

    Gearshift mechanism

    Converter drainback valve

    Powertrain control module (pcm)

    Electronic governor

    Governor pressure curves

    Overdrive off switch

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