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Oxygen sensor (o2s)-pcm input

DESCRIPTION

The Oxygen Sensors (O2S) are attached to, and protrude into the vehicle exhaust system. Depending on the emission package, the vehicle may use a total of either 2 or 4 sensors.

Non-California Engines: On certain non-California (Federal) emissions packages, 2 sensors are used: upstream (referred to as 1/1) and downstream (referred to as 1/2). With this emission package, the upstream sensor (1/1) is located just before the main catalytic convertor. The downstream sensor (1/2) is located just after the main catalytic convertor.

California Engines: On certain California emissions packages, 4 sensors are used: 2 upstream (referred to as 1/1 and 2/1) and 2 downstream (referred to as 1/2 and 2/2). With this emission package, the right upstream sensor (2/1) is located in the right exhaust downpipe just before the mini-catalytic convertor. The left upstream sensor (1/1) is located in the left exhaust downpipe just before the mini-catalytic convertor. The right downstream sensor (2/2) is located in the right exhaust downpipe just after the mini-catalytic convertor, and before the main catalytic convertor. The left downstream sensor (1/2) is located in the left exhaust downpipe just after the mini-catalytic convertor, and before the main catalytic convertor.

OPERATION

An O2 sensor is a galvanic battery that provides the PCM with a voltage signal (0-1 volt) inversely proportional to the amount of oxygen in the exhaust.

In other words, if the oxygen content is low, the voltage voltage output is high; if the oxygen content is high the output voltage is low. The PCM uses this information to adjust injector pulse-width to achieve the 14.7-to-1 air/fuel ratio necessary for proper engine operation and to control emissions.

The O2 sensor must have a source of oxygen from outside of the exhaust stream for comparison. Current O2 sensors receive their fresh oxygen (outside air) supply through the wire harness. This is why it is important to never solder an O2 sensor connector, or pack the connector with grease.

Four wires (circuits) are used on each O2 sensor: a 12-volt feed circuit for the sensor heating element; a ground circuit for the heater element; a low-noise sensor return circuit to the PCM, and an input circuit from the sensor back to the PCM to detect sensor operation.

Oxygen Sensor Heaters/Heater Relays: Depending on the emissions package, the heating elements within the sensors will be supplied voltage from either the ASD relay, or 2 separate oxygen sensor relays. Refer to Wiring Diagrams to determine which relays are used.

The O2 sensor uses a Positive Thermal Co-efficient (PTC) heater element. As temperature increases, resistance increases. At ambient temperatures around 70F, the resistance of the heating element is approximately 4.5 ohms on 5.2 and 5.9L engines, and approximately 13.5 ohms on the 4.7L engine. As the sensor's temperature increases, resistance in the heater element increases. This allows the heater to maintain the optimum operating temperature of approximately 930-1100F (500-600 C). Although the sensors operate the same, there are physical differences, due to the environment that they operate in, that keep them from being interchangeable.

Maintaining correct sensor temperature at all times allows the system to enter into closed loop operation sooner. Also, it allows the system to remain in closed loop operation during periods of extended idle.

In Closed Loop operation, the PCM monitors certain O2 sensor input(s) along with other inputs, and adjusts the injector pulse width accordingly. During Open Loop operation, the PCM ignores the O2 sensor input. The PCM adjusts injector pulse width based on preprogrammed (fixed) values and inputs from other sensors.

Upstream Sensor (Certain Non-California Emissions): The upstream sensor (1/1) provides an input voltage to the PCM. The input tells the PCM the oxygen content of the exhaust gas. The PCM uses this information to fine tune fuel delivery to maintain the correct oxygen content at the downstream oxygen sensor. The PCM will change the air/fuel ratio until the upstream sensor inputs a voltage that the PCM has determined will make the downstream sensor output (oxygen content) correct.

The upstream oxygen sensor also provides an input to determine catalytic convertor efficiency.

Downstream Sensor (Certain Non-California Emissions): The downstream oxygen sensor (1/2) is also used to determine the correct air-fuel ratio. As the oxygen content changes at the downstream sensor, the PCM calculates how much air-fuel ratio change is required. The PCM then looks at the upstream oxygen sensor voltage and changes fuel delivery until the upstream sensor voltage changes enough to correct the downstream sensor voltage (oxygen content).

The downstream oxygen sensor also provides an input to determine catalytic convertor efficiency.

Upstream Sensors (Certain California Emissions): Two upstream sensors are used (1/1 and 2/1).

The 1/1 sensor is the first sensor to receive exhaust gases from the #1 cylinder. They provide an input voltage to the PCM. The input tells the PCM the oxygen content of the exhaust gas. The PCM uses this information to fine tune fuel delivery to maintain the correct oxygen content at the downstream oxygen sensors. The PCM will change the air/fuel ratio until the upstream sensors input a voltage that the PCM has determined will make the downstream sensors output (oxygen content) correct.

The upstream oxygen sensors also provide an input to determine mini-catalyst efficiency. Main catalytic convertor efficiency is not calculated with this package.

Downstream Sensors (Certain California Emissions): Two downstream sensors are used (1/2 and 2/2). The downstream sensors are used to determine the correct air-fuel ratio. As the oxygen content changes at the downstream sensor, the PCM calculates how much air-fuel ratio change is required. The PCM then looks at the upstream oxygen sensor voltage, and changes fuel delivery until the upstream sensor voltage changes enough to correct the downstream sensor voltage (oxygen content).

The downstream oxygen sensors also provide an input to determine mini-catalyst efficiency. Main catalytic convertor efficiency is not calculated with this package.

Engines equipped with either a downstream sensor( s), or a post-catalytic sensor, will monitor catalytic convertor efficiency. If efficiency is below emission standards, the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) will be illuminated and a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) will be set. Refer to Monitored Systems in Emission Control Systems for additional information.

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