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Dodge Durango
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Battery » Description and operation
Battery

DESCRIPTION

Fig. 1 Maintenance-Free Battery - Typical Fig. 1 Maintenance-Free Battery - Typical

1 - POSITIVE POST

2 - VENT CAPS

3 - NEGATIVE POST

4 - GREEN BALL

5 - ELECTROLYTE LEVEL

6 - MAINTENANCE-FREE BATTERY

7 - PLATE GROUPS

8 - TEST INDICATOR

9 - VENTS

A large capacity, maintenance-free storage battery (Fig. 1) is standard factory-installed equipment on this model. Male post type terminals made of a soft lead material protrude from the top of the molded plastic battery case to provide the means for connecting the battery to the vehicle electrical system. The battery positive terminal post is visibly larger in diameter than the negative terminal post, for easy identification. The letters POS and NEG are also molded into the top of the battery case adjacent to their respective positive and negative terminal posts for additional identification confirmation. Refer to Battery Cables in the index of this service manual for the location of more information on the battery cables that connect the battery to the vehicle electrical system.

This battery is designed to provide a safe, efficient and reliable means of storing electrical energy in a chemical form. This means of energy storage allows the battery to produce the electrical energy required to operate the engine starting system, as well as to operate many of the other vehicle accessory systems for limited durations while the engine and/or the charging system are not operating. The battery is made up of six individual cells that are connected in series. Each cell contains positively charged plate groups that are connected with lead straps to the positive terminal post, and negatively charged plate groups that are connected with lead straps to the negative terminal post. Each plate consists of a stiff mesh framework or grid coated with lead dioxide (positive plate) or sponge lead (negative plate). Insulators or plate separators made of a non-conductive material are inserted between the positive and negative plates to prevent them from contacting or shorting against one another. These dissimilar metal plates are submerged in a sulfuric acid and water solution called an electrolyte.

The factory-installed battery has a built-in test indicator (hydrometer). The color visible in the sight glass of the indicator will reveal the battery condition.

For more information on the use of the built-in test indicator, refer to Battery in the index of this service manual for the location of the proper battery diagnosis and testing procedures. The factory-installed maintenance-free battery has non-removable battery vent caps. Water cannot be added to this battery. The chemical composition of the metal coated plates within the maintenance-free battery reduces battery gassing and water loss, at normal charge and discharge rates. Therefore, the battery should not require additional water in normal service.

If the electrolyte level in this battery does become low, the battery must be replaced. However, rapid loss of electrolyte can be caused by an overcharging condition. Be certain to diagnose the charging system after replacing the battery for a low electrolyte condition and before returning the vehicle to service. Refer to Charging System in the index of this service manual for the location of the proper charging system diagnosis and testing procedures.

For battery maintenance schedules and jump starting procedures, see the owner's manual in the vehicle glove box. Optionally, refer to Maintenance Schedules and Jump Starting, Towing and Hoisting in the index of this service manual for the location of the recommended battery maintenance schedules and the proper battery jump starting procedures. While battery charging can be considered a maintenance procedure, the battery charging procedures and information are located in the service procedures section of this service manual. This was done because the battery must be fully-charged before any battery diagnosis or testing procedures can be performed.

Refer to Battery Charging in the index of this service manual for the location of the proper battery charging procedures.

BATTERY SIZE AND RATINGS

The battery Group Size number, the Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA) rating, and the Reserve Capacity (RC) rating or Ampere-Hours (AH) rating can be found on the original equipment battery label. Be certain that a replacement battery has the correct Group Size number, as well as CCA, and RC or AH ratings that equal or exceed the original equipment specification for the vehicle being serviced. Refer to Battery in the index of this service manual for the location of the proper factory-installed battery specifications.

Battery sizes and ratings are discussed in more detail below.

  • Group Size

The outside dimensions and terminal placement of the battery conform to standards established by the Battery Council International (BCI). Each battery is assigned a BCI Group Size number to help identify a correctly-sized replacement.

  • Cold Cranking Amperage

The Cold Cranking Amperage (CCA) rating specifies how much current (in amperes) the battery can deliver for thirty seconds at -18 C (0 F). Terminal voltage must not fall below 7.2 volts during or after the thirty second discharge period. The CCA required is generally higher as engine displacement increases, depending also upon the starter current draw requirements.

  • Reserve Capacity

The Reserve Capacity (RC) rating specifies the time (in minutes) it takes for battery terminal voltage to fall below 10.5 volts, at a discharge rate of 25 amperes. RC is determined with the battery fullycharged at 26.7 C (80 F). This rating estimates how long the battery might last after a charging system failure, under minimum electrical load.

  • Ampere-Hours

The Ampere-Hours (AH) rating specifies the current (in amperes) that a battery can deliver steadily for twenty hours, with the voltage in the battery not falling below 10.5 volts. This rating is also sometimes identified as the twenty-hour discharge rating.

OPERATION

When an electrical load is applied to the terminals of the battery, an electrochemical reaction occurs.

This reaction causes the battery to discharge electrical current from its terminals. As the battery discharges, a gradual chemical change takes place within each cell. The sulfuric acid in the electrolyte combines with the plate materials, causing both plates to slowly change to lead sulfate. At the same time, oxygen from the positive plate material combines with hydrogen from the sulfuric acid, causing the electrolyte to become mainly water. The chemical changes within the battery are caused by the movement of excess or free electrons between the positive and negative plate groups. This movement of electrons produces a flow of electrical current through the load device attached to the battery terminals.

As the plate materials become more similar chemically, and the electrolyte becomes less acid, the voltage potential of each cell is reduced. However, by charging the battery with a voltage higher than that of the battery itself, the battery discharging process is reversed. Charging the battery gradually changes the sulfated lead plates back into sponge lead and lead dioxide, and the water back into sulfuric acid.

This action restores the difference in the electron charges deposited on the plates, and the voltage potential of the battery cells. For a battery to remain useful, it must be able to produce high-amperage current over an extended period. A battery must also be able to accept a charge, so that its voltage potential may be restored.

The battery is vented to release excess hydrogen gas that is created when the battery is being charged or discharged. However, even with these vents, hydrogen gas can collect in or around the battery. If hydrogen gas is exposed to flame or sparks, it may ignite. If the electrolyte level is low, the battery may arc internally and explode. If the battery is equipped with removable cell caps, add distilled water whenever the electrolyte level is below the top of the plates. If the battery cell caps cannot be removed, the battery must be replaced if the electrolyte level becomes low.

In addition to producing and storing electrical energy, the battery serves as a capacitor and voltage stabilizer for the electrical system of the vehicle. It absorbs most abnormal or transient voltages caused by the switching of any of the electrical components in the vehicle.

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